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An Introduction to Copulas

An introduction to copulas system of Nigerian Pidgin English, a pidgin/creole language spoken in Nigeria.

The oraigin of the word copula i sthe latin word copulae, which means "to join together"

Normally, it is assumed that creole languages do not have copulas as the choice of the copula is mainly grounded on the syntactic nature of the complement.

Many other factors also contribute to the choice or to the presence of the copulas.

Nigeria is a highly multilingual country, with over 500 spoken languages and thus is one of the world's territories with the highest linguistic diversification.

The total population is estimated to be over 170+ miilion people. Nigerian languages belong to the three families of Niger-Congo, Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan.

Three main languages spoken in Nigeria have a distinctive official recognition as major national lanuages - Igbo (main language of the South-East), Hausa (main language in the North) and Yoruba (main language of the South-West).

The choice of these three African Nigerian languages to be represented at the Federal level is certainly grounded on demographic but also political reasons.

There are some major "minor language" among others Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio and Tiv , which have as many speakers as, say, the Igbo language, but for some reasons they were disfavoured.

Each of the three main Nigerian languages has millions of native speakers but Hausa is distinct from the other ywo because it is also commonly spoken as a second language in the northern part of th eountry.

About 25% of Nigerians speak Nigerian English among their first their first languages but for most of the population English remains a second language which is still not easily accessible.

However, English is de facto the only official language in Nigeria.

It is true that Nigerian Pidgin does not have any official recognition, which strikingly contracticts the range of its uses and it is potential as a language of aggregation and general communication among Nigerians.

On the contrary, Nigerian Pidgin, a language that has no kind of official recognition whatsoever, is probably the most widely spoken language of Nigeria.

Nigerian Pidgin has over two million of native speakers in the Southern regions of Niger Delta and over 50 million of native speakers who speak it as one among their first languages.

It is reasonable to assume thatboth of these estimates are rapidly rising.

It is easy to say that Nigerian Pidgin represents one of the main threats to minor Nigerian languages, especially in the Southern regions of Nigeria.

Nigerian Pidgin is an English-based expanded pidgin. Its denomination as "pidgin" may be misleading.

Firstly, linguistic evidence demonstrates a rather advanced level of internal development (archimedean copulas).

Secondly, although its level of sociolinguistic nativization varies from region to region, the language has steadily entered into the domain of informational communications among young speakers, especially in the urban areas.

As a result, Nigerian Pidgin should henceforth included as creole varieties.



Copulas Definition

By definition, a copula is a function that joins or couples multiple distribution fuctions to their one-dimensional distribution function. Copulas are distribution function whose one-dimensional margins are uniform.



What are Copulas?

The term copula is commonly used in grammatical description to refer to a link ver or particle which has little independent meaning and whose main function is to relate other elements of the clause structure, normally a subject and a predicate.

For example, how does the standand English, Nigerian English or Nigerian Pidgin English related?

You see, the copular verb in English is to be, as in he is a doctor. Even though may other verbs can be said to have similar functions, e.g. feel, as in he feels angry, they do not qualify as copulas since they bear too much sematic content.

As this applies also to Nigerian Pidgin, for instance, which has many copulative verb such as feel {to feel}, be like {to seem}, turn {to turn}, kom {to become}, etc...

However, in this an introduction to copulas, the scope focus will be limited to work of three items be, na and de, which can be defined as real copulas, even though they may also have non-copular uses.

As you know, many linguists and philosophers regarded the copula as a key item in terms of logical and linguistic properties.



Gaussian Copulas

Gaussian copulas is a solution to problem on how to handle default correlation in complex instruments. It was used prior to the credit crisis of 2008 (copulas in finance), and it has pretty much been shamed to be useless formulae.

Mathematically, it's an elegant way to join marginal distributions and handle default correlation. But it requires too many simplifying assumptions.

In many cases of statistical modelling, it is essential to obtain the joint copula pdf between multiple random variables.

Even though the marginal distributions each of the RVs are known, their joint distributions may not be easy to obtain from these marginal distribution.

Knowing the scale-free measures of dependence between random variables, copula can be used to obtain their joint distribution.

How would gaussian copulas help with nigerian pidgin and broken english or pidgin english dictionary and pidgin english nigerian?



Examples of Copulas

  • Copula examples - So na di trading of cash for pure private sexual activity na im de bad?.
    • Copula Meaning - So it is the trading of cash for pure private sexual activity which is the really bad thing?.

  • Copula Examples - One rug wey don old well-well na im de on top di ground.
    • Copula Meaning - It was a very old rug that was on the ground.

  • Copula Examples - Na hygiene na im be di tin.
    • Copula Meaning - It is hygiene that is the most important thing.

  • Copula Examples - E don dey empty now!
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - I know say I suppose go but di tin say today,I de for Unilag, I de meet one French guy wey I meet first for Alliance francaise...
    • Copula Meaning - I know that I was supposed to fo but the thing is that today I was at the University of Lagos and I met one French guy that I first met at Alliance francaise...

  • Copula Examples - Di guy don dey empty my purse!.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Music wy go carry pesin, pesin no de know am O.
    • Copula Meaning - The music that will take you far, noboy knows which one it is! {Nobody knowns how life will be}.

  • Copula Examples - My wallet bin dey full.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Wetin de do di guy sef? You know wetin dem de no? Dem go wan collect moni from dier artiste hand.
    • Copula Meaning - What's wrong with him? You know what they will do? They will try to take money from their artistes hands.

  • Copula Examples - As dem bin dey full am before.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Dem still de make game. I de see am for Alaba. People de still buy am.
    • Copula Meaning - They are still making games. I always see it in Alaba. People still buy them.

  • Copula Examples - Adebayo dey happy because you go come here.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - I discover say progress de for dis place, youknow, I see am say progress de here.
    • Copula Meaning - I discovered that this place has made progress, you know, I realised that there is progress here.

  • Copula Examples - People suppose dey happy now.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Wetin I bin wan yarn be say...
    • Copula Meaning - What I wanted to say is that...

  • Copula Examples - At one point, di crowd just kom begin dey happy and shout.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - The man vex no be small.
    • Copula Meaning - The man got really offended.

  • Copula Examples - E dey dey hard before.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Now, e be like say im de vex.
    • Copula Meaning - Now, it seems that he is offended.

  • Copula Examples - Baba Fryo too dey jealous.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - I like Oraifite or Kano.
    • Copula Meaning - I like Oraifite or Kano.

  • Copula Examples - I go Kano.
    • Copula Meaning - I went to Kano.

  • Copula Examples - But she dey too jealous.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - I notice say e get some artists wey go climb,di mc go don tell dem say one track, dem go go there perform two or three.
    • Copula Meaning - I noticed thata there are some articts that will climb on stage. The MC would tell them to sing one track, but they will perform two or three.

  • Copula Examples - Yes now! E dey jealous am.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - But you for don call us, you for don tell somebody for meeting mek dem tell me. Anytin we dis police people bin de do, nobodi de check dem, nobodi de talk.
    • Copula Meaning - But you should have called us, you should have told somebody at the meeting to come and tell me. What the police have been doing... nobody is checking, nobody is talking.

  • Copula Examples - But you for don call us, you for don tell somebody for meeting mek dem tell me. Anytin we dis people bin de do, nobodi de check dem, nobodi de talk.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - I no get work but namusic be my work, na me be Warri reggae master. So, where I for de work na Westminster.
    • Copula Meaning - I don't have a job but music is my work, I am Warri reggae master. So, tehplace where I should work is Westminster.
  • Copula Examples - Everi month, one line dey short O.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Di man say na now things beta pass, di woman kom explain say di man no fit know becaue im bin no de dis world when things bin beta and say she don begin de pay library tax before dem born di man.
    • Copula Meaning - The man said that things are better than ever now. The woman then explained that the man couldn't know because he was not even in this world when things were better and that she began paying the library taxes before the man was even born.

  • Copula Examples - And di other one dey long pass.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Wetin you talk be say we sef for no leave di publicity for only dem. We for sel do rally around our area.
    • Copula Meaning - You said that we should not leave all th epublicity to them. We are supposed to publicise the event in our area.

  • Copula Examples - She dey sweet O.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - If to say you goJos find out like dat, e for good.
    • Copula Meaning - If you would just find out like this, it would be good.

  • Copula Examples - And wetin dey sweet pass.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Me and dis man don de speak slang sef before some people wey de rap today. People no believe say we neva pass boundary becuase dem tink say we be American.
    • Copula Meaning - This man and I have been speaking slang even before people that rap today. Other people do not believe thart we have never travelled outside Nigeria because they think that we are American.

  • Copula Examples - E take big money dey buy present for you.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Abeg una get anytin wey una de carry go, wey I go carry go?.
    • Copula Meaning - Please, do you have anything that you are carrying that place, that I can help carry there?.

  • Copula Examples - Di guy dey my purse! Man, na true o.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Whether di tin wey I forecast de clear or e no too de clear, e no too important.
    • Copula Meaning - Whether the thing I forecast is clear or not, it is not too important.

  • Copula Examples - My wallet bin dey full. E don dey empty now!
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Di tin wey I like most na chocolate.
    • Copula Meaning - The thing I like most is chocolate.

  • Copula Examples - By the way, you go take car dey come abi?
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Dem be oyinbo.
    • Copula Meaning - They are white people.

  • Copula Examples - I Love this COUNTRY! Me, a no go lie!! Baba EHINGBETI.
    • Copula Meaning -

  • Copula Examples - Oyinbo na thief.
    • Copula Meaning - White people are thieves.

  • Copula Examples - Ideas de.
    • Copula Meaning - There are ideas

  • Copula Examples - Im de school.
    • Copula Meaning - He is at school

  • Copula Examples - Im de for Lagos
    • Copula Meaning - He is in Lagos

  • Copula Examples - I de in charge of di office.
    • Copula Meaning - He is in charge of th eoffice.

  • Copula Examples - My teacher funny
    • Copula Meaning - My teacher is funny

  • Copula Examples - My teacher de funny.
    • Copula Meaning - My teacher is funny.

  • Copula Examples - She de doctor.
    • Copula Meaning - She is a doctor.

  • Copula Examples - Bill na beta student.
    • Copula Meaning - Bill is a good student.

  • Copula Examples - But di light and heat from sun na for free.
    • Copula Meaning - But the light and the heat from the sun are free.

  • Copula Examples - Dat na for sure now.
    • Copula Meaning - That's sure!

  • Copula Examples - Anonymous voters na for people wey get problem.
    • Copula Meaning - Anonymous voters are for people who have problems.

  • Copula Examples - You ready go see di guy? Na for me to contact am now.
    • Copula Meaning - Did you prepapre to go and see the guy? It's up to me to contact him then.

  • Copula Examples - Na me invite the person come and I believe say na for our progress.
    • Copula Meaning - It's me who invited this person here and I believe that it is for our progress.

  • Copula Examples - If your lyrics tight as Baba don talk am, if your lyrics de wetin dem fit play, dem go play am.
    • Copula Meaning - If your lyrics are good as Baba has said, if your lyrics are what they can play, they will play your songs.

  • Copula Examples - Na true o!
    • Copula Meaning - It's true!

  • Copula Examples - Water de be cold
    • Copula Meaning - The water is cold

  • Copula Examples - This cup
    • Copula Meaning - This is a cup

  • Copula Examples - That tree
    • Copula Meaning - That yonder is a tree

  • Copula Examples - They outside
    • Copula Meaning - They are outside.

  • Copula Examples - He behind tree
    • Copula Meaning - He's behind the tree.

  • Copula Examples - I be lady or I na lady.
    • Copula Meaning - I am a single woman.

  • Copula Examples - Bill na beta student or Bill be beta student.
    • Copula Meaning - Bill is a good student.

  • Copula Examples - Na she be di oga
    • Copula Meaning - SHE is the boss!

  • Copula Examples - Na Goodluck na im show me.
    • Copula Meaning - It's Goodluck, it's him who showed it to me.

  • Copula Examples - Na hand dem for tek tear am into pieces.
    • Copula Meaning - Their own hands they would use totear him pieces.

  • Copula Examples - Who be dat one?
    • Copula Meaning - Who is that?

  • Copula Examples - Na me! or E be me
    • Copula Meaning - It's me! {that one}!

  • Copula Examples - Dat one na me o.
    • Copula Meaning - That's me!

  • Copula Examples - Na video ehn? Distin abi? Abi na voice?
    • Copula Meaning - Is it video ehn? This thing, isn't it? Or is it a voice {recorder}?

  • Copula Examples - I be DJ
    • Copula Meaning - I am a DJ

  • Copula Examples - I be Amerikano
    • Copula Meaning - I am American

  • Copula Examples - You be tif Or You na tif
    • Copula Meaning - You are a thief

  • Copula Examples - E be my best friend.
    • Copula Meaning - He's my best friend.

  • Copula Examples - We beyour family.
    • Copula Meaning - We are your family.

  • Copula Examples - Una be nice people.
    • Copula Meaning - You are nice people.

  • Copula Examples - Dem be ogbonge actors
    • Copula Meaning - They are big actors.

  • Copula Examples - She be di person.
    • Copula Meaning - She is the one.

  • Copula Examples - Di man na my brother
    • Copula Meaning - The man is my brother.



Copulas Nigerian Pidgin

Nigerian English Dictionary Translation

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Dr Roger Blench of academia of the University of Cambridge, England, a British linguistics, anthropology, archaeology & ethnomusicology
Prof Herbert S. Igboanusi of A dictionary of Nigerian English Usage, Ibadan Enicrown Fit Publishers
C.N.C Asomugha of Nigerians slangs ABIC Publishers, Onitsha
Ayo Bamgbose of New English Africa World press
Mobolaji Adekunle of Non-random variation in the Nigerian English (1979) In Ubahakwe, Ebo, ed. Varieties and Functions of English in Nigeria. Ibadan: African Universities Press in association with the Nigeria English Studies Association
H.M. Burkil of The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Families Royal Botanic Gardens
FMI 1964 of Some Nigerian woods, Lagos Federal Ministry of Information, Nigeria
David Jowitt of Nigerian English usage, an introduction. Longman, Nigeria
C.U.C Ugorji of Nigerian English Phonology, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang
A. H. M. Kirk-Greene of The vocabulary and determinants of schoolboy slang in Northern Nigeria, Occasional Paper No. 6 Zaria, ABU
R. Opara and P. Oleghe of Contemporary student vocabulary, Ibadan, Nigeria
Mercy U. Ukpabio of Students' Language on Campus. , Calabar: Dept of Languages and Linguistics, University of Calabar undergraduate long essay. Naija Lingo and many more...

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However, others, such as "rubber" are pronounced in a variety of forms, such as "roba", "ruba" etc. depending on sociolinguistic considerations.

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